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It is a simple system, which manages different versions and drafts of softwares (but not limited to only softwares). It is the mean of recording changes in files (softwares are nothing but systematic collections of files). Let’s take an example, books have different version (editions) then the collections of all this versions with difference (what changed in which version) can be referred to VCS.
It is used to get previous state. Getting previous version of book in above example. You can easily trace history of files. With this system, you can easily restore to any previous state easily. For example you are working on an product to revamp it’s UI, but designs are not yet decided. So to impress your boss, you tried different UI’s and showed it to your boss. But unfortunately boss rejects all of them and gave you new designs. So in order start work, you have to restore to previous state for which either use continuous ctrl+z (which will only be useful for small changes) or use VCS. With VCS you can restore within few seconds.
Version Control Systems helps developer team to manage changes to source code over time. Version Control Softwares plays main role here ’cause every developer team / software team / students working on a project , definitely uses a version control software to track every modification to the code in a special kind of database. If mistake is made, developers can turn back and compare earlier versions of code to fix the mistake while reducing burden to team members.
When you commit changes in a centralized system, the changes are directly visible to others as you commit directly in the remote. But in distributed, you first commit locally, and it will not allow others to see until you push it to the remote. Likewise, when others commit a change in a centralized system, you can directly see them, but you need to pull changes in the local repo in distributed systems after they push it. So, distributed systems can also be beneficial in having only necessary/updated/completed code with everyone rather than having even experimental code like in Centralized systems.
In Version Control Systems, there is a local copy of the repo for every developer on their computers. They can make whatever changes they want and commit without affecting the remote repo. They first commit in their local repo and then push the changes to the remote repo.